The study of species and where they live is of particular interest to biologists, because it not only allows us to gain insight into genetic diversity, but also into how different populations interact. Animals with widespread distributions are often assumed to be of least concern. This can be misleading, as it does not take into account the possibility of fragmentation and population disjunction. The Stripey fish Microcanthus strigatus is one example, as it is listed as being of least concern on the IUCN Red List. Although it spans a wide distribution across the western Pacific and eastern Indian Oceans, our study suggests that populations in Western Australia, the southwest Pacific (including eastern Australia), Hawaii and East Asia are very genetically divergent. Several of these populations have been isolated since the last glacial cycle in the Pleistocene epoch, and are currently so fragmented that no contemporary genetic exchange occurs. This is of significant conservation concern as a once widespread population is revealed to consist of four cryptic groups, especially in light of evidence suggesting that the Hawaiian population is currently in decline and that the southwest Pacific population is distinct enough to warrant recognition as a different species.
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Tea Y‐K, Van Der Wal C, Ludt WB, Gill AC, Lo N, Ho SYW. Boomeranging around Australia: Historical biogeography and population genomics of the anti‐equatorial fish Microcanthus strigatus (Teleostei: Microcanthidae). Mol Ecol. 2019;28:3771–3785. https://doi.org/10.1111/mec.15172