Summary from the authors: A reciprocal translocation radically reshapes sex‐linked inheritance in the common frog

Sex chromosomes evolve when recombination ceases between the X and Y chromosomes, and the X and Y chromosome accumulate differences between them. We examined sex chromosomes across three populations of the common frog, Rana temporaria. In one population, we confirm that the sex chromosome and an autosome have undergone a reciprocal translocation, a rearrangement in which two chromosomes swap arms. The resulting chromosome pair is coinherited as sex chromosomes. Furthermore, because frog chromosomes only recombine near the ends, much of the newly added chromosome is incorporated into the sex-determining region. This provides a large amount of new genetic material to the selective environment of the sex chromosomes, in which sequence on the X chromosome are under selection in females twice as often as males, and sequence on the Y are subject sex-specific selection in males. We further confirmed unique sex-chromosome arrangements in the other two populations, demonstrating that Rana temporaria has extensive structural polymorphism in its sex chromosomes. — Melissa Toups

Toups, M., Rodrigues, N, Perrrin, N, and M. Kirkpatrick. (2019). Genomics, environment and balancing selection in behaA reciprocal translocation radically reshapes sex‐linked inheritance in the common frog. Molecular Ecology28(8), 1877–1889.

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